Medical use[ edit ] Aspirin is used in the treatment of a number of conditions, including fever, pain, rheumatic feverand inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritispericarditisand Kawasaki disease. Secondary headaches, meaning those caused by another disorder or trauma, should be promptly treated by a medical provider. Among primary headaches, the International Classification of Headache Disorders distinguishes between tension headache the most commonmigraine, and cluster headache.
By the time of Galenwillow bark was commonly used throughout the Roman and Arab worlds: The major turning point for salicylate medicines came inwhen a letter from English chaplain Edward Stone was read at a meeting of the Royal Societydescribing the dramatic power of willow bark extract to cure ague—an ill-defined constellation of symptoms, including intermittent fever, pain, and fatigue, that primarily referred to malaria.
He collected, dried, and powdered a substantial amount of willow bark, and over the next five years tested it on a number of people sick with fever and agues.
In his letter, Stone reported consistent success, describing willow extract's effects as identical to Peruvian bark, though a little less potent. In fact, the active ingredient of Peruvian bark was quininewhich attacked the infectious cause of malaria, while the active ingredient of willow extract, salicinrelieved the symptoms of malaria but could not cure it.
Stone's letter mistakenly attributed to Edmund rather than Edward Stone was printed in Philosophical Transactionsand by the end of the 18th century willow was gaining popularity as an inexpensive substitute for Peruvian bark.
After unsuccessful attempts by Italian chemists Brugnatelli and Fontana inJoseph Buchner obtained relatively pure salicin crystals in ;    the following year, Henri Leroux developed another procedure for extracting modest yields of salicin.
Tea made from its flowers are an old folk remedy against fever and pain. Salicylate medicines—including salicin, salicylic acid, and sodium salicylate— were difficult and wasteful to extract from plants, and in Hermann Kolbe worked out a way to synthesize salicylic acid.
However, the unpleasant side effectsparticularly gastric irritation, limited their usefulness, : Bayer chemists soon developed Phenacetinfollowed by the sedatives Sulfonal and Trional.
Inthe young chemist Felix Hoffmann joined the pharmaceutical group. It is generally accepted that he turned to this idea because his father was suffering the side effects of taking sodium salicylate for rheumatism. A vigorous reaction ensued, and the resulting melt soon solidified.
When Gerhardt tried to dissolve the solid in a diluted solution of sodium carbonate it immediately decomposed to sodium salts of salicylic and acetic acids. Prinzhorn is credited in the paper with conducting the experiments.
They were first to assign to it the correct structure with the acetyl group connected to the phenolic oxygen. The next step would normally have been clinical trialsbut Dreser opposed further investigation of ASA because of salicylic acid's reputation for weakening the heart—possibly a side effect of the high doses often used to treat rheumatism.
Dreser's group was soon busy testing Felix Hoffmann's next chemical success: Though the results of those trials were also very positive, with no reports of the typical salicylic acid complications, Dreser still demurred. However, Carl Duisberg intervened and scheduled full testing.
For many years, however, he attributed Aspirin's discovery solely to Hoffmann. Although aspirin's origin was in academic research and Bayer was not the first to synthesize it, as of Bayer still described Hoffman as having "discovered a pain-relieving, fever-lowering and anti-inflammatory substance.
This claim was later supported by research conducted by historian Walter Sneader. Hoffmann was named on the US Patent as the inventor, which Sneader did not mention. Since the substance itself was already known, Bayer intended to use the new name to establish their drug as something new; in January they settled on Aspirin.
Ethical drugs were drugs that could be obtained only through a pharmacist, usually with a doctor's prescription.Reminder: These notes are meant to supplement, not replace, the laboratory manual.
Synthesis of Aspirin Notes History and Application. Aspirin is one of the most commonly used drugs in the world with approximately 1 Aspirin is the common name for the compound acetylsalicylic acid, widely used as a fever reducer and as a pain killer.
Salicylic acid, whose name comes from Salix, the willow family of plants, was derived from willow bark extracts.
A history of the science and technology behind aspirin from willow bark to COX inhibitor. Understand the uses of aspirin for dogs, the dosage, risks and side effects as well as alternative remedies for safer joint pain and arthritis relief. Aspirin is the most widely used over-the-counter drug in the world.
The average tablet contains about milligrams of the active ingredient acetylsalicylic acid with an inert binding material such as starch. Aspirin 75mg Tablets - Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) by Accord-UK Ltd.