Reproductive biology articles

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Reproductive biology articles

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Molecular replication The characteristics that an organism inherits are largely stored in cells as genetic information in very long molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid DNA. In it was established that DNA molecules consist of two complementary strands, each of which can make copies of the other.

The strands are like two sides of a ladder that has been twisted along its length in the shape of a Reproductive biology articles helix spring. The rungs, which join the two sides of the ladder, are made up of two terminal bases. There are four bases in DNA: In the middle of each rung a base from one strand of DNA is linked by a hydrogen bond to a base of the other strand.

But they can pair only in certain ways: This is why one strand of DNA is considered complementary to the other. The double helices duplicate themselves by separating at one place between the two strands and becoming progressively unattached.

As one strand separates from the other, each acquires new complementary bases until eventually each strand becomes a new double helix with a new complementary strand to replace the original one. Because adenine always falls in place opposite thymine and guanine opposite cytosine, the process is called a template replication —one strand serves as the mold for the other.

It should be added that the steps involving the duplication of DNA do not occur spontaneously; they require catalysts in the form of enzymes that promote the replication process.

Reproductive biology articles

Molecular reproduction The sequence of bases in a DNA molecule serves as a code by which genetic information is stored. RNA serves as a messenger for carrying the genetic code to those places in the cell where proteins are manufactured. The way in which the messenger RNA is translated into specific proteins is a remarkable and complex process.

The ability to synthesize enzymes and other proteins enables the organism to make any substance that existed in a previous generation. Proteins are reproduced directly; however, such other substances as carbohydrates, fats, and other organic molecules found in cells are produced by a series of enzyme-controlled chemical reactions, each enzyme being derived originally from DNA through messenger RNA.

Reproductive biology articles

It is because all of the organic constituents made by organisms are derived ultimately from DNA that molecules in organisms are reproduced exactly by each successive generation. Cell reproduction The chemical constituents of cytoplasm that part of the cell outside the nucleus are not resynthesized from DNA every time a cell divides.

This is because each of the two daughter cells formed during cell division usually inherits about half of the cellular material from the mother cell see cell: Cell division and growthand is important because the presence of essential enzymes enables DNA to replicate even before it has made the enzymes necessary to do so.

Cells of higher organisms contain complex structures, and each time a cell divides the structures must be duplicated. The method of duplication varies for each structure, and in some cases the mechanism is still uncertain.

One striking and important phenomenon is the formation of a new membrane. Cell membranes, although they are very thin and appear to have a simple form and structure, contain many enzymes and are sites of great metabolic activity.

Shark Savers :: Shark & Ray Reproduction

This applies not only to the membrane that surrounds the cell but to all the membranes within the cell. New membranes, which seem to form rapidly, are indistinguishable from old ones. Thus, the formation of a new cell involves the further synthesis of many constituents that were present in the parent cell.

This means that all of the information and materials necessary for a cell to reproduce itself must be supplied by the cellular constituents and the DNA inherited from the parent cell. Page 1 of 5.A new study identifies microorganisms residing in the human fallopian tubes and uterus, but some researchers are skeptical of the findings.

0 Comments. Human reproductive biology is primarily controlled through hormones, which send signals to the human reproductive structures to influence growth and skybox2008.com hormones are secreted by endocrine glands, and spread to different tissues in the human skybox2008.com humans, the pituitary gland synthesizes hormones used to control the activity .

Bacteria Found in Women’s Upper Reproductive Tracts Diana Kwon | Oct 17, A new study identifies microorganisms residing in the human fallopian tubes and uterus, but some researchers are skeptical of the findings. Human reproductive system, organ system by which humans reproduce and bear live offspring.

Provided all organs are present, normally constructed, and functioning properly, the essential features of human reproduction are (1) liberation of an ovum, or egg, at a specific time in the reproductive cycle, (2) internal fertilization of the ovum by spermatozoa, or sperm cells, (3) transport of the.

Reproduction: Reproduction, process by which organisms replicate themselves. In a general sense reproduction is one of the most important concepts in biology: it means making a copy, a likeness, and thereby providing for the continued existence of species.

Shark and Ray Reproduction. Sharks have been around for a long time, making them evolutionarily successful. Over hundreds of millions of years of evolution, sharks have developed a wide range of reproductive adaptations, a characteristic which has allowed them to survive major extinction episodes.

Biology of Reproduction | Oxford Academic